انجام پایان نامه زبان انگلیسی
Comparative effect of cultural awareness on reading comprehension of EFL learners with integrative and instrumental motivation
زبان انگلیسی – پایان نامه : This study will aim to investigate the comparative effect of cultural awareness on reading comprehension of EFL learners with integrative and instrumental motivation. For this purpose, 120 female learners will be selected from the total of 180 EFL Intermediate learners with the age range of 12-18 studying at Tak high School. All of the learners will take a preliminary English test (PET) for homogenization prior to the start of the study. They will also fill out the Attitude Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) and Instrumental Orientation (INST) tests which will categorize them into two subgroups of integrative and instrumentally motivated learners. The learners will be also homogenized regarding their reading ability at the outset through the PET reading test. 60 learners in one experimental group consisting of 30 integrative and 30 instrumental learners will undergo a researcher- made reading comprehension test. Regarding participants’ interest, the researcher will prepare five short stories for intermediate level. The content of stories will be exactly based on the cultural contents in ten passages. Each text will be followed by six multiple choice questions. As a whole, the test included 30 questions and cultural contents regarded for this study within 10 sessions. At the end of the treatment period, the mean scores of all the two subgroups will be compared through a two-way ANOVA, and the formulated hypotheses are tested through the results.
Keywords: cultural awareness, instrumental motivation, integrative motivation, reading comprehension
زبان انگلیسی – پایان نامه Introduction:
This study primarily addresses the issue of cultural awareness and its impact upon the reading comprehension of EFL learners with integrative and instrumental motivation. It could be argued that an integral part of learning a foreign language is acquiring some familiarity with the culture associated with it. For teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL), the question is, “How can we incorporate cultural knowledge and understanding within the context of our English language classes?” Simply having an acquaintance with the grammar, syntax, phonetics, and some of the social conventions associated with English will not give learners real insights into the nuances of the daily lives of the people whose language they hope to speak. Increasingly, language teachers are recognizing the need to incorporate sociocultural factors into their classrooms (Palmer and Sharifian 2007); however, there is a lack of consensus on how to introduce cultural elements into the lessons. Questions examined in this study are how background knowledge fills up the information gaps and how an EFL teacher helps conduct the target cultural awareness. It is assumed that there is a high degree of relationship between reader’s prior background knowledge and the text.
Reading is not the process of passive detecting and reading literally any more. Even it is the process of active decoding and confirming and also it is interplay between readers and the reading contexts. Hence, the ability to read and understand various passages has been identified as necessity to English proficiency. According to Chen (2008), a considerable percentage of English language learners receive low ratings and they mark below their native-speaking counterparts on standardized reading comprehension tests. The significance of cultural background knowledge in reading is essential to the schema theory. This theory deals with processing schemata by every reader. The schemata are cognitive constructs to organize the information in the long-term memory and these structures are sometimes culture-specific. Much understanding is provided by the readers’ cultural background. According to schema theory, a passage only provides directions for readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own, previously acquired knowledge. This sort of knowledge is named the readers’ background knowledge and the previously acquired knowledge structures are named schemata (Ghazanfari and Froughi, 2010).